Crypto Counterparty Risk Solutions

Invemo Capital AG
8 min readAug 22, 2023

What is a counterparty risk

Crypto counterparty risk refers to the risk that one party involved in a cryptocurrency transaction may fail to fulfill their obligations, leading to financial losses for the other party. This risk can arise from various factors, such as the insolvency of a cryptocurrency exchange or the fraudulent activities of a trading partner. Latest example is the collapse of FTX.

In this article, you will learn about ways to mitigate counterparty risk as well as latest blockchain developments that can solve this issue. Whether you are an experienced cryptocurrency trader or a newcomer to the crypto space, understanding counterparty risk is crucial to protect your investments and ensure a safe and secure trading experience.

How to manage counterparty risk

Managing counterparty risk in digital assets involves taking precautions to mitigate the risk of default or failure of the other party involved in a transaction or investment. Given the unique nature of digital assets, such as cryptocurrencies and tokens, counterparty risk management becomes crucial. Here are some strategies to consider:

1. Choose Reputable Exchanges and Platforms

When trading or investing in digital assets, use well-established and reputable cryptocurrency exchanges and trading platforms. Research the platform’s history, security practices, and user reviews before conducting any transactions.

2. Diversification

Spread your investments across multiple digital assets, rather than concentrating all your holdings in a single asset. Diversification can help reduce the impact of a potential default by a single counterparty.

3. Cold Storage for Large Holdings

For significant amounts of digital assets, consider using cold storage solutions like hardware wallets. These devices are offline and significantly less vulnerable to hacks or breaches on online platforms.

4. Know Your Counterparty (KYC)

Platforms that enforce KYC procedures can provide an additional layer of security by verifying the identities of users. This can help prevent fraudulent or malicious activities.

5. Research and Due Diligence

Before engaging in any transaction or investment, thoroughly research the counterparty. Understand their background, track record, and financial stability. For initial coin offerings (ICOs) and token sales, review the project’s whitepaper and team credentials.

6. Smart Contracts and Escrow Services

When engaging in peer-to-peer transactions or trading digital assets on platforms that support smart contracts, consider using these features. Smart contracts can automatically execute transactions when predefined conditions are met, while escrow services hold funds until both parties fulfill their obligations.

7. Stablecoins for Transactions

Utilize stablecoins for transactions when possible, as they are designed to have lower price volatility compared to other cryptocurrencies. This can reduce the risk associated with sudden price fluctuations.

8. Regularly Monitor Holdings

Stay informed about the market and the performance of your holdings. Keep track of news, market sentiment, and any developments that might impact the value of your assets.

9. Insurance and Custodial Services

Some exchanges and platforms offer insurance coverage for digital assets stored on their platforms. Additionally, certain custodial services are designed to provide an added layer of security for institutional investors.

10. Exit Strategies

Have a clear plan for exiting a trade or investment if the counterparty’s performance starts to raise concerns. Establish thresholds or criteria that trigger your exit to minimize potential losses.

11. Stay Informed

The landscape of digital assets is rapidly evolving. Stay up-to-date with regulatory changes, security best practices, and technological advancements that could affect counterparty risk.

12. Risk Management and Allocation

Assess your risk tolerance and allocate a portion of your portfolio to digital assets accordingly. Don’t invest more than you can afford to lose.

Remember that no strategy can eliminate counterparty risk entirely, but by following these steps, you can significantly reduce your exposure to potential defaults and failures in the digital asset space. Always prioritize security and due diligence in your investment decisions.

Account Abstraction as a solution

Despite continuous advancements, blockchains are facing challenges in providing the same level of flexibility and user-friendliness seen in mainstream digital payment systems. However, emerging technologies hold promise in improving the payments experience within the realm of digital currencies. A recent exploration titled “Auto Payments for Self-Custodial Wallets” delves into leveraging cutting-edge technology, specifically Account Abstraction (AA), on public blockchains to automate payments. This innovation has the potential to reshape how transaction fees are dealt with on the Ethereum network, offering enhanced user convenience.

The technical overview of ERC-4337, the existing standard for implementing AA on Ethereum, aims to provide a clearer understanding of its workings.

To grasp the value of Account Abstraction, let’s briefly review the two primary account types on Ethereum: Externally Owned Accounts (EOAs) and Contract Accounts (CAs), also known as user accounts and smart contracts. While EOAs enable users to send transactions through private keys, they lack programmability. In contrast, CAs possess executable code but cannot initiate transactions on their own; transactions must originate from user accounts with signatures.

Account Abstraction (AA) seeks to leverage the programmability of CAs for end users’ benefit. With AA, a self-custodial wallet built as a smart contract can offer more functionalities to users than traditional EOA-based wallets. This advancement is made possible by ERC-4337, an Ethereum standard proposed by community members, including Ethereum’s founder Vitalik Buterin.² ERC-4337 enables direct ownership of smart contract accounts without relying on EOA signatures. Despite the absence of traditional EOA signatures, secure authentication processes are still crucial to ensure proper control of the smart contract account. This enables the smart contract account to handle tasks like multi-factor authentication, recurring payments, and custom user-defined rules.

ERC-4337, a recent advancement in AA, was introduced as an Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) in 2021. It underwent the Ethereum Request for Comment (ERC) process, which standardizes applications on the Ethereum network. Unlike core EIPs, ERCs define application-level interactions, not requiring unanimous adoption. As of March 2023, key components of ERC-4337 are deployed on the Ethereum mainnet. Unlike previous AA proposals, ERC-4337 enables Account Abstraction without major protocol changes, allowing immediate experimentation with new user experiences. Importantly, ERC-4337 is compatible with any blockchain using the Ethereum Virtual Machine, extending its reach beyond Ethereum.

Walking through an ERC-4337 transaction

In a traditional EOA transaction, users interact with self-custodial wallets to create, sign, and submit transactions. The transaction payload, signed with private keys, enters the mempool and is selected by validators for incorporation into the blockchain.

ERC-4337 introduces an alternative transaction flow involving UserOperations and Bundlers. UserOperations represent user intent and are submitted to a specialized mempool. Bundlers monitor this mempool, bundle UserOperations, and send them to block builders as EOA transactions. Paymasters, optional smart contract accounts, can sponsor transaction fees for Contract Accounts, enhancing user experiences.

1. UserOperations Generation: Users create UserOperations using smart contract wallets complying with ERC-4337 standards. These UserOperations encode the user’s intent for blockchain interaction and are signed by the user for authentication. Once generated, the UserOperation enters the dedicated UserOperation Mempool, a specialized storage distinct from the standard Ethereum transaction mempool.

2. Bundlers’ Role: Bundlers, specialized entities, monitor the UserOperation Mempool. They perform simulations and organize multiple UserOperations into a single transaction bundle. Bundlers collect these bundles and forward them to the EntryPoint contract. They apply fee prioritization logic to optimize gas consumption and profit.

3. EntryPoint Coordination: The EntryPoint contract assumes the role of a central coordinator. It receives the bundles of UserOperations and orchestrates their flow throughout the ERC-4337 transaction process.

4. Paymaster Engagement: In cases where specified by the UserOperation, the EntryPoint interacts with a Paymaster contract. Paymasters can cover transaction fees for Contract Accounts. The EntryPoint conducts checks to confirm the Paymaster’s deposit sufficiency or the Contract Account’s adequate funds to cover gas fees. If applicable, the Paymaster can introduce custom fee logic during execution.

5. Verification and Execution Initiation: The EntryPoint contract proceeds to validate the signatures within the UserOperation by calling upon the Contract Account. If required, it may also involve the Paymaster. Contract Accounts, representing user accounts, smoothly cooperate with the EntryPoint contract to facilitate transaction execution. Following successful verification, the EntryPoint transmits pertinent UserOperation data to the Contract Account, thus commencing the execution process.

In essence, this process outline illuminates the intricate flow of ERC-4337’s mechanisms, revealing the journey of UserOperations from creation to execution and the orchestration of various components along the way.

Account Abstraction and real-world applications

As blockchain technology continues its exploration of real-world applications, self-custodial wallets have garnered significant popularity among users seeking to manage and transact with their digital currencies securely. Over the course of Ethereum’s history, approximately 180 million distinct addresses have participated in transactions. This figure encompasses various account types and instances of individuals or groups holding multiple accounts. However, the monthly count reveals that only a few million on-chain interactions are initiated by actual individuals. On a daily basis, Ethereum’s mainnet witnesses roughly 1 million on-chain transactions.

In stark comparison, Visa, an established leader in the payment realm, processed a staggering 258 billion transactions in the year 2022, maintaining an impressive daily average of 707 million transactions. This achievement is underpinned by the global circulation of 4.1 billion Visa-linked cards.

Given this substantial contrast, the central question arises: Can blockchain networks attain comparable levels of adoption if they manage to provide an array of payment experiences equivalent to mainstream systems, all while ensuring a seamless user experience? This query prompts a consideration of potential pathways to drive the adoption of blockchain technology.

One conceivable approach involves the abstraction of gas fees for users, essentially shielding users from the intricacies of fee management and thereby cultivating a more user-intuitive environment. Alternatively, the option to allow users to settle transaction fees using ERC-20 tokens, like stablecoins, could enhance the familiarity and convenience of blockchain transactions.

In essence, to align with the adoption and user-friendliness evident in mainstream payment systems, blockchain technology must encompass a diverse spectrum of payment experiences while upholding a user-centric interface. Such a development could potentially pave the way for blockchain networks to secure broader acceptance and compete with the transaction volumes observed within established payment systems.

Why Account Abstraction is one of the best counterparty risk solutions

Account Abstraction enables to virtually implement any functionality into a required transaction making it one of the best and most cost-effective solutions to solve counterparty risk issues in digital assets. The challenge of potential solutions is to precisely understand the business logic behind a specific transaction in order to enable counterparties to set up the required parameters.

For example, let’s consider a simple case when Alice wants to send ETH and receive USDC from Bob, but she is not sure if Bob will send her USDC after she has sent ETH to him. Alice and Bob create a CA, therefore becoming CA Owners with the ability to adjust any settings given both would approve them. Afterwards, they both deposit ETH and USDC to CA’s public address. Given each would approve a respective ETH and USDC withdrawal to each other's wallet address, both counterparties would be satisfied with the outcome. What would happen if either Bob or Alice would attempt to breach the agreement and refuse to sign a confirm a withdrawal transaction? The beauty of Account Abstraction is that, for example, it enables to program CA to have a time-sensitive setting that would be triggered and initiate a reverse transaction from CA to a deposit wallet address of Bob and Alice, therefore ensuring that each counterparty receives the initially transferred amount back.

DeFi Vault powered by Invemo Capital intends to solve such and many similar issues. We would be delighted to receive feedback from you and welcome as our initial test users.



Invemo Capital AG

Invemo Capital is an asset manager and broker focused on digital assets.